- Why does the Holderness coast need protecting?
- Why is it important to protect Easington?
- Why does the Holderness coast suffer from erosion?
- Which is harder chalk or boulder clay?
- Why is hornsea protected?
- Why is Holderness under threat?
- How is mappleton protected?
- What causes coastal retreat?
- What are the impacts of coastal erosion?
- How has coastal change affected people on Holderness Coast?
- Why is the Holderness Coast important?
- What Defences are used on the Holderness coast?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of coastal Defences?
- How much do groynes cost?
- Why does mappleton need protecting?
Why does the Holderness coast need protecting?
There are several reasons why the coast at Holderness is eroding so quickly: Rock type – the cliffs are made from less-resistant boulder clay (made from sands and clays) which slumps when wet.
Naturally narrow beaches – these beaches give less protection to the coast as it doesn’t reduce the power of the waves..
Why is it important to protect Easington?
Towns such as Bridlington, Hornsea and Mappleton are in greater need of prrtection than the farmland inbetween, the Easington Gas Terminal also needs protecting because it is so important in providing gas for the UK. Locally it also provides jobs.
Why does the Holderness coast suffer from erosion?
The Holderness coastline is susceptible to erosion due to the long north-easterly fetch, allowing for powerful waves, and the softness of the geology that make up the cliffs.
Which is harder chalk or boulder clay?
Boulder clay is structurally weak, and has little resistance to erosion. It produces sloping cliffs between 5 and 20metre high. Chalk surrounds the boulder clay. This is a much stronger rock but has eroded along fault lines and bedding planes forming structures like cliffs, caves, arches and stacks.
Why is hornsea protected?
Hornsea (destructive waves breach defences) In Hornsea sand has accumulated where protection exists. This is because the groynes provide a barrier to sediment transportation. This has reduced erosion along the front of the town but increased rates are evident further south where the defences stop.
Why is Holderness under threat?
Due to the erosion of the cliffs, the village is under threat.
How is mappleton protected?
The two rock groynes at Mappleton have helped develop wide and steep sandy beaches. In 1991 almost £2 million was spent on two rock groynes and a rock revetment to protect Mappleton and the B1242 coastal road. Blocks of granite were imported from Norway for the sea defences.
What causes coastal retreat?
Coastal erosion may be caused by hydraulic action, abrasion, impact and corrosion by wind and water, and other forces, natural or unnatural. … The softer areas fill up with sediment eroded from hard areas, and rock formations are eroded away.
What are the impacts of coastal erosion?
As global sea level rises, the action of waves at higher elevations increases the likelihood for extensive coastal erosion. Already, coastal erosion costs roughly $500 million per year for coastal property loss, including damage to structures and loss of land.
How has coastal change affected people on Holderness Coast?
On average, the coastline of Holderness erodes at about 2m per year, mainly during storms and tidal surges. The impacts of coastal erosion on socio-economic aspects are: damage and loss of infrastructures, loss of property, loss of farmland, danger for tourism, damage to coastal protection.
Why is the Holderness Coast important?
The Holderness Coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the features associated with them. This is because the area contains ‘textbook’ examples of coastal erosion and deposition. The exposed chalk of Flamborough provides examples of erosion, features such as caves, arches and stacks.
What Defences are used on the Holderness coast?
Management strategiesBridlington is protected by a 4.7 km long sea wall.Hornsea is protected by a sea wall, groynes and rock armour.Coastal management at Withersea has tried to make the beach wider by using groynes, and also uses a seawall to protect the coast.Mappleton is protected by rock groynes.More items…
What are the advantages and disadvantages of coastal Defences?
Sea wallAdvantagesDisadvantagesProtects the base of cliffs, land and buildings against erosion. They can prevent coastal flooding in some areas.Expensive to build and maintain. Curved sea walls reflect the energy of the waves back to the sea. This means that the waves remain powerful. Can also be unattractive.
How much do groynes cost?
Artificial reefs are estimated cost around EUR 15,000 to 35,000 per running meter of structure (Deltares, 2014). According to Scottish Natural Heritage, in 2000 construction costs for rock groynes ranged between GBP 10,000 and 100,000£ (12,500 – 125,000€) per structure.
Why does mappleton need protecting?
In 1990, Mappleton was under threat from losing 30 houses and its main road. In 1991, sea defences were built in order to protect the village and B1242 main road from intense sea erosion. … In order to protect the cliffs along the front of Mappleton from undercutting, their gradient was also reduced artificially.